The New NEC code requirement for SPDs
Adopted in all 50 states, NFPA 70, National Electrical Code (NEC) is the benchmark for safe electrical design, installation, and inspection to protect people and property from electrical hazards. The NEC is revised every three years, with the recent revision in 2020.
Article 230.67 of the NEC 2020 is a newly added section requiring all services supplying dwelling units to be installed with Type 1 or Type 2 SPD. A Dwelling unit can be a townhome, condo, single family, or each unit in a multifamily or an apartment. In plain English – All the service panels supplying the residential units must be protected by a Type 1 or Type 2 SPD. This requirement will also apply to upgraded services on dwelling units.
230.67 Surge Protection.
(A) Surge-Protective Device. All services supplying dwelling units shall be provided with a surge-protective device (SPD).
(B) Location. The SPD shall be an integral part of the service equipment or shall be located immediately adjacent thereto.
Exception: The SPD shall not be required to be located in the service equipment as required in (B) if located at each next level distribution equipment downstream toward the load.
(C) Type. The SPD shall be a Type 1 or Type 2 SPD. (D) Replacement. Where service equipment is replaced,
all of the requirements of this section shall apply.
What is an SPD?
SPD is Surge Protective Device that limits the overvoltage, surges, and spikes on an electrical line to protect the loads. In the event of surges, the electrical loads are subjected to excessive harmful overvoltage that could damage the load instantly. The SPDs installed at the electrical panel will absorb and divert the overvoltage so the loads will never have to face the damaging effects of the surges.
The SPD’s are classified into Type 1 and Type 2 categories depending on their installation locations. Type 1 SPDs are installed between the secondary of the service transformer and the line side of the main service disconnect. Type 2 SPDs are installed after the main service disconnect, or at load side of the main breaker.
EP is beyond an SPD
EP technology is classified as Type 2 SPD, tested under UL1449 4th Ed for its surge suppressing capabilities. EP technology combines an SPD and a patented EMI filter to remove harmful high-frequency noise from the electrical system. Our technology protects your home from the damaging effects of surges, transients, noise, and other dirty power. All our products are patented, proven, and made in the USA.
EP sales at firstname.lastname@example.org to know about your local distributor. A certified
electrician is required to install the EP filter on your main electrical panel.
EP’s licensed electricians can help you install the product in all 50 states.
Dirty electricity is a big problem in every house and is always an under-rated subject for any household. Dirty electricity is inevitable for any house, and it causes detrimental effects such as reduced life span, increased power bills, and permanent damage to your home appliances. $30,000 worth of electronics are subjected to the harmful effects of dirty electricity in an average single-family home in the USA, with about $8,000 cost of damage per surge incident. Luckily, electrical filters are available in the market that can completely filter out the dirty electricity to make it clean and reliable.
What are clean electricity and Dirty electricity?
electricity is the power signal we receive from power (utility) companies. Clean
electricity is a sinusoidal 60Hz 120V signal without any surges or noise. On the
other hand, dirty electricity is the electrical signal with the noise and
surges riding on top of the signal that we get from the power companies. In
Dirty electricity is full of surges, transients, and noises that transmit throughout the house, to the other houses – all the way to your transformer on the street. During its travel, the dirty electricity reaches every additional electrical load in the house, including your sophisticated smart electronics.
What are the sources of dirty electricity in your home?
The source of dirty electricity in your home is your smart electrical loads. Traditionally, we used linear loads that were 100% resistive in nature, ex: incandescent bulbs and simple heating coils that run of AC signal at 60Hz. However, modern electrical loads use a sophisticated “switching” mechanism that converts AC to DC and vice-versa for its operation. These modern loads are also called “nonlinear” loads that often switch at much higher frequencies up to 300kHz. The switching mechanism adapted by the nonlinear loads creates a tremendous level of electrical noise in the system, thus making the “dirty power”. The resultant dirty power is non-sinusoidal, noisy with surges and high peaks.
Dirty electricity causes serious electrical problems in your house:
The dirty electricity carrying unwanted electrical noise causes the electronics to perform poorly with low efficiency. Surges and transients can cause permanent damage to the electrical appliance, while the noise reduces the system’s performance. The other consequences of dirty electricity in your house are program loss, computer reboots, hot-to-touch appliances, and increased power bills.
How do you clean up the dirty electricity?
We clean water and air using filters before consuming them to maintain quality and healthy life. Similarly, the dirty power needs to be filtered for noises before our electrical loads consume it. There are two ways to clean up the dirty electricity in your home:
1) Use a surge protection device (SPD) at the main electrical panel that can remove the surges and transients from the dirty electricity
2) Use an electrical filter (low pass) at the main electrical panel to remove the electrical noise from the dirty electricity
How does EP filter the dirty electricity?
Environmental Potentials, Inc (EP) filters combine two patented technologies into one single unit to clean up the dirty electricity. The two unique technologies are:
1) Waveform Correction Technology has an in-built tank circuit to absorb and dissipate the electrical noise.
2) Robust SPD with self-healing thermal MOVs to quickly absorb and dissipate fast-rising surges and transients.
EP filters could offer 100% protection 24/7 from surges and noise with these two unique technologies. The compact size of the unit enables it to be installed on any electrical panel in every house (single, multi-family, townhouse, and villas). EP filters offer guaranteed surge protection and noise removal, filtering the dirty electricity to make it clean and sinusoidal.
By converting the dirty electricity into clean electricity, the EP filters
1) Enhance the life of appliances
2) Reduces power bills
3) Increases efficiency and performance of your appliances
Where to buy EP filters and how to install them?
EP sales at email@example.com to know about your local distributor. A certified
electrician is required to install the EP filter on your main electrical panel.
EP’s licensed electricians can help you install the product in all 50 states.
Surge Protection Device
(SPD) is an electrical device that absorbs the fast-rising voltage spikes and
surges from the voltage line. The lead lengths of the SPD play a significant
role in SPD’s performance. The performance of an SPD is measured in Voltage
Protection Rating (VPR), a number generally given by the UL/ETL with their UL1449
What is VPR in a Surge protection device?
SPD is usually connected to the main panel to protect the downstream devices or the wall receptacle to protect the electronics (unprotected devices). VPR is the clamping voltage measured by the SPD after it passes through a 6kV 1.2/50us, 3kA 8/20us combination surge waveform. In other words, it’s the let-through voltage that the SPD leaves to its downstream (electrical panel in your home or unprotected electronics) after it is subjected to the 6kV, 3kA 8/20us combination surge. The higher the VPR, the weaker the SPD performance because SPD is leaving out a larger surge to the load. Ex: An SPD with a VPR of 800V has a lower performance than an SPD with 600V, as the former gives 200V more considerable surge than the latter to the unprotected device. The following picture demonstrates how an SPD let-through voltage to the electrical panel.
Why does the lead length affect the surge protection device performance?
The lead length of the
SPD plays a vital role in the SPD’s performance. The inductance of the wire varies
with the lead length, altering the SPD performance. The surge is 8/20us, a much
higher frequency signal to the SPD than the fundamental 60Hz signal. The
circuit behavior of the SPD is different with the higher frequency signal
compared to the nominal AC waveform at 60 Hz. The SPD behaves like a high
impedance circuit when it passes with a high-frequency signal (surge). The
higher the impedance, the higher the device’s resistance to absorbing the
surge, and hence it will leave more surge (VPR) to the panels downstream – as
the SPD is usually connected in parallel to the electrical panel.
How much performance change will the lead length cause on an SPD?
On average, SPD’s VPR increases by
20v per additional 1 inch of the wire. UL specifies to test and release the VPR
number with a standard 6-inch length lead length. Therefore, the manufacturers
set VPR from their cut sheets with a 6-inch lead-length wire. The research and
testing show that the VPR increases by an average of 20v per additional 1 inch
of wire length. Ex: If an SPD has a VPR of 600v at 6inch, it will have a VPR of
600v+ (4*20) = 680v at 10 inches. In other words, with an additional 4in SPD lead
wire, your downstream electrical loads are receiving an extra 80v surge (that
nobody likes). Likewise, a three feet lead wire on the same SPD will pass
through 600+(30*20) = 1200V, dangerous enough to damage your electrical load.
What if I cannot trim the lead length to 6 inches?
While keeping the lead lengths to 6in is highly recommended, it is not quite possible for every field installation considering the placement of panels. In the cases where the lead lengths are more than 6 inches, it is highly recommended to twist the SPD leads to negate the impedance and the surge. You could decrease the VPR by an additional 25% with the twisted wires. Ex: If the SPD has a VPR of 1200V at 36-inch straight wires, it will have a VPR of 900V with the twisted wires. The following picture shows the twisted wires on an industrial surge protection device.
It is also recommended not
to have any bends or loops in the wires. The bends and loops increase the wire
inductance, decreasing SPD performance. The following graph summarizes the lead
length, twisted wires vs. the VPR.
The lead length of the surge protection device makes a significant impact on the SPD performance. The following guidelines are recommended when installing a surge protection device in any facility:
1) Run the straight wires without bends and loops if the lead lengths are 6 inches and under
2) Twist the wires to negate the impedance and increase the VPR by 25% when the lead lengths are more than 6 inches.
Environmental Potentials, Inc (EP) manufactures patented Surge Protection Devices that are UL 1449 4th Ed tested. EP uses a premium quality larger wire that could also increase the SPD performance in lowering the VPR numbers. The EP offers additional waveform correction and SPD capabilities with its patented technology. Made in the USA, the EP provides 100% protection 24/7 from surges and noise. Contact us for more information
A power quality audit (PQA) gives customers a complete understanding of their electrical loads. A PQA provides the facility manager a thorough knowledge of their facility’s power quality issues, reliability, and efficiency. Good power quality is a perfect voltage and current waveforms at 50/60Hz under its permissible tolerance levels. However, the nonlinear nature of the load disrupts the power quality resulting in wasted energy, frequent maintenance, and premature damage to the loads. Identifying the causes and issues of the poor power quality beforehand saves a significant maintenance budget for a facility. A well-written PQA does it for you – it identifies the root cause of the poor power quality, types of power quality issues, and a suitable recommendation complying with the industry standards.
5 reasons why PQ audit is needed !
1. Understand the load:
An audit gives a detailed breakdown of load behavior in the system regarding power consumption, noise levels, and possible maintenance problems. It would be highly beneficial to the facility manager to know where and when he can plan on replacing the load or where he is spending more money on the wasted energy.
2. Root Cause Analysis (RCA):
The audit report gives the facility the root cause of any potential poor PQ issues. Finding the root cause for the potential power quality problem at the early stage can save thousands of dollars in electrical maintenance.
3. Types of issues:
Audit details if the facility has surges, transients, sags, swells, blackouts, interruptions, harmonics, noise, and any other problems causing tripping of circuits and burning of equipment
Audit recommends an expert solution for the possible PQ issues. We recommend harmonic filters, AVRs, SPDs, Noise filters, and transformers based on the need.
5. Standards and compliances:
The audit uses national and international safety standards and compliances in writing the PQ reports and recommendations. Ex: The report details the system’s harmonics and mentions if they comply with the 519 standards.
The PQ audit is the service offered by Environmental Potential’s application engineering team that measures, checks, and monitors the reliability and efficiency of your electrical system. We use PS4500 by Summit technologies, G4500 by ELSPEC, Fluke 1770, 1736, 438-II, and Ti 401 to assess and monitor the power quality issues in any facility. We have done over 100 PQA studies in the US, Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Russia, and Indonesia. Our engineers are well educated in the local and international electrical standards and ensure that they provide the best recommendation for your facility to protect and increase your system’s performance.
Surges and transients are classified into two categories depending on their source of origin 1) External and 2) Internal. External surges enter the facility from outside, such as Lightning strikes, Utility grid switching etc. Internal surges originate inside the facility from the non-linear load switching. Ex: Load switching, AC-DC power conversion, inrush current from motors. Both the internal and external surges cause instantaneous damage to the electrical loads, altering the efficiency and performance of the system. Researches indicate that 70-85% of the total surges are internal, while 15-30% are external.
The two most important sources of externally generated surges are 1) Lightning strikes and 2) Utility company switching.
The lightning can take two ways to enter the facility main panel – 1) direct strike on the facility through air 2) indirect strike through the ground.
The direct strike on the facility is extremely rare (3-5% of the lightning-related damages), but this could leave severe damage to the roof and the electronics inside the house. While the direct strike on a facility is through the air, a direct strike on an electric pole or overhead line can transmit the surge through the powerlines. A traditional SPD (surge protective device) or any power quality equipment can not stop the direct strike surge. Traditionally, surge arrestors and grounding rods are used to divert the surge from the roof to the grounding rod.
The more common scenario in tropical weather is a nearby lightning strike hitting the ground (95-97% of the lightning-related damages) – an indirect strike entering the facility. The indirect strike takes the ground path (via underground pipes, electrodes, phone/internet/cable wires) to enter the facility. The indirect strikes are less severe than the direct hits and can be stopped using a ground filter or a sophisticated SPD.
The following image shows the entrance paths of lightning surge into a facility.
Utility company switching:
The other standard method of externally generated surges is utility switching. The sudden start and stop of the services due to power outage, blackout/brownouts, sags, and overload will result in severe surges in the order of thousands of volts. The majority of the utility-related surges enter the facility through the powerlines. A suitable SPD and proper grounding can protect the facility from these externally generated utility-related surges.
The majority of the surges (70-85% of the total surges) are generated by the electrical loads in the facility. Today’s electrical loads are non-linear, with a working principle of “switching”. The switching is a phenomenon in which the load constantly changes its operating voltage, ex: AC to DC and DC to AC. The load generates unwanted electrical noise called “switching noise” during the switching process. The unattenuated switching noise resonates in the facility, amplifying it further to cause “internally generated surges”.
The other source of internally generated transients is the inductive coupling and inrush current. Magnetic materials such as motors and transformers work on the principle of inductive coupling. Inductive coupling induces/transfers voltage from the primary to the secondary winding, inducing voltage transients to the power lines. In addition to the coupling, the magnetic loads often require a high amount of inrush current for their operation, leaving residual voltage and current transients to the system.
The damage caused by the surges
Externally generated surges and transients are high in amplitude but are only up to 15% of the total surges. Internally generated noises are prevalent in any facility and constitute up to 85% of the total surges/transients. Due to the extremely high voltage levels, the external transients could instantly burn the loads down to ashes. However, the internal transients may not be large enough to burn the loads instantly, but they will negatively affect the system’s power quality over a period of time. The transients alter the load’s capacitance, resulting in erratic behavior or premature damage. The transients also increase the load’s operating temperature, causing a significant increase in loads’ power consumption. The following table shows the differences between externally and internally generated transients.
Use of an SPD for surges
The surge protection device (SPD) consists of overvoltage protection circuits, mainly using Metal Oxide Varistors (MOV). MOV is a nonlinear resistive element that shorts in the event of a specified overvoltage. By shunting (diverting) massive surge energy into the ground, the SPD clears the rest of the power system from surges/transients. The shunting of energy usually takes place to the ground at the main panel. The following picture shows the typical shunting of surge energy using a traditional SPD. (Image source: RF Wireless World)
A critical feature of a transient/surge is that they often are ring noises. Ring noise is a bipolar damped oscillating wave as shown in the following figure (Image source: IEEE)
The MOVs in an SPD divert the overvoltages (only) to the ground, but not the residual ringing noise. The residual ringing noise often self-magnifies (resonates) high enough to cause damage to the loads. The damage may not be instantaneous, but it is large enough to create power quality issues such as erratic behavior, premature death, increased heat, and energy losses in the system.
A Perfect solution for surges and transients
An SPD at the main panel may be a good solution for the combination waves and the externally generated surges at the building’s main entrance. But they may not solve the internally generated transients that are ring waves and combination waves. The facility needs a self-healing thermal-based MOV along with a filtration circuit that can quickly attenuate the residual ringing noise, therefore protecting the load from noise and transients. EP’s patented circuit uses:
1) Thermal-based Metal Oxide Varistor for its surge protection device circuitry, complying with UL 1449 3rd Ed to remove externally generated surges and transients.
2) Waveform correction and low pass filter circuits continuously remove the switching noise / higher-order harmonics generating internal to the facility.
The following measurement shows the effectiveness of EP technology over traditional SPDs (CH and PSY).
As seen in the above measurement, the EP unit did not leave any residual ringing noise to the system with the help of its internal waveform correction technology. The other two filters, CH and PSY, leave out tremendous ringing noise/transients back into the system, potentially damaging the loads permanently.
Environmental Potentials is proud to offer a complete line of products to meet the needs of any electrical environment. EP is committed to maintaining the highest standards in the manufacturing process to ensure every product exceeds the customer’s expectations. With industrial, commercial, communication, and residential applications, Environmental Potentials has a solution for businesses, governments, and homes of all shapes and sizes. Contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org for any questions you may have.
Return path of currentNeutral
The neutral, white-colored wire is the return path of electricity. Ex: when a lamp is powered up, electricity flows from the mains to the lamp on a hot (black) wire and returns to the mains through the neutral (white) wire. (Exhibit 1) The hot and the neutral make the circuit “complete” to light the lamp. The lamp will not light if there is any breakage in the hot or the neutral wires.
The ground, green-colored wire is the safety wire to provide a path of electricity when any metal parts touch the hot or neutral wire. Ex: A motor metal casing is connected to the ground wire. If a hot or neutral inside the motor touches the casing, the casing will be energized, resulting in a “fault current” through the ground wire. The ground wire (green) safely moves that fault current into the breaker panel, tripping the circuit. Exhibit 1 shows the path of electricity in neutral and ground.
Neutral is the return path of current
Ground is for safety
Needed for good power qualityGrounding and Bonding
Grounding and bonding are two different words often misused in the market. In simple terms, grounding connects to the earth, whereas bonding is the connection established to maintain electrical continuity and conductivity. Both grounding and bonding are essential to maintain a building’s electrical safety.
Let’s take an example of a typical US-based single-family home with a 120V system to understand the concepts better. The system has two hots (black and red), one neutral (white), and one ground (green).
US residential panelThe Structure of home electrical panels
The majority of the homes have their electrical meters installed outside the building with a service disconnect (service equipment). The load panel (Lug main breaker panel) is installed inside the house, feeding to the different loads of the house (Exhibit 3). Few homes may have their service disconnect and the load breakers in the same panel, making the service equipment and lug main breaker panel into one unit (Exhibit 2).
Grounding protects your facility from over-voltages.
Grounding or earthing limits the over-voltages from lightning, surges, and faults by diverting them to the earth through grounding rods. While there is usually only one grounding rod (into the earth) outside the building, there could be several grounding electrodes in the system. The NEC recommends using the following seven types of grounding electrodes that are present in a system:
- Metal underground water pipe
- The metal frame of the building
- Concrete encased electrode
- Ground ring
- Rod and pipe electrodes
- Other listed electrodes
- Plate electrodes
Exhibit 4 shows the various grounding electrodes and the grounding rod in a system.
The grounding electrodes are either connected 1) all of them to the grounding rod 2) from one conductor to another using a bonding jumper and then to the grounding rod 3) combination of both (1) and (2). See Appendix A for reference.
The over-voltage or the fault currents take the path of grounding electrodes to the grounding rod or to the over-voltage protective devices.
Why is ground wire necessary?
Any metal casing electrical load should have a ground wire. The purpose of the ground wire is to trip the breaker in the event of fault current safely. If the ground wire is not connected correctly or missing, it will cause a severe electric shock to the person and harm the building. Ex: Motor metal casing is connected to the ground using a green ground wire. If the ground wire is broken or does not trip the breaker in the event of a fault current – then the motor’s metal casing is energized, resulting in a severe electrical shock to the person when he touches it. If the system has multiple casings connected to that motor grounding point, other loads’ casings will pose a serious electric shock. Loose lugs and connectors might result in an arc over flash and fire hazard. Therefore, a properly connected grounding wire is essential for the safety of personnel and the building.
The ground and neutral wires are connected at the main panel ONLY
NEC 2008 states that the neutral and ground wires should be “bonded” together at the main panel (only) to the grounding rod. Assuming that the ground rod is properly installed with excellent earth bonding, the rod should carry away the externally generated surges like lightning into the earth – protecting the house and building.
The purpose of the ground wire is always “safety.” Ground wires are:
- Never intended to carry any current during normal operations
- It intended to hold the fault current to the main panel to trip the breaker, and nobody gets hurt.
The ground and neutral must have separate paths downstream of the main panel. But if you connect the neutral and ground the downstream (at the subpanels)
- The ground carries current to the main panel – creating multiple return paths of electricity
- Neutral breakers might not trip in the event of fault since their load is shared with the ground.
- The bare copper wires in the subpanel are now holding current – a potential threat for an electric shock to the personnel
Therefore, the main panel is the ONLY location in your home, in other buildings and structures supplied by this main panel (service equipment) – where the neutral and ground are connected. The branch circuits or the subpanels should have their neutral wire isolated from:
- Ground wire
- All equipment grounding conductors, metallic parts, enclosures etc.
Exhibit 5,7 shows the proper ways of grounding. Exhibit 6,8 shows the violations.
Depending on the type of soil and the nature of the loads used in a facility, multiple ground rods, like shown in Exhibit 5, can create ground loops. The ground loops circulate ground currents (not necessarily fault currents) amongst themselves, expanding the unwanted currents to the rest of the facility. Ground loops are the most common power quality issues in multifamily homes, commercial and industrial facilities. To reduce the ground loops, it is recommended to follow the setup in Exhibit 7, where the subpanel’s ground is pulled through the ground wire connecting the Service Equipment.
NOTE: It is legal to add multiple ground rods a specific minimum distance and connect them to the original main entrance ground rod (Like in Exhibit 5). However, it is illegal to ground the subpanels to separate earth grounding system (taking out the ground wire connection from the main panel to the subpanel).
Noise and Surge sharing from neighbors?
Multifamily homes might share the same ground rod and electrodes at their service meters. Improper use of ground and neutral results in the fault current and noise to the main service center’s ground. Since the grounds between the neighbors are shared, the noise and fault current will also share, degrading the neighborhood’s power quality. Exhibit 9 shows four different grounding rods from the neighbors and sharing of noise/current (red lines) between them.
Proper grounding is essential for safety and good power quality. Neutral is the return path of the current, and ground wire holds the fault current to trip the breaker in protecting the person and the facility. The neutral and ground should never be bonded together in the facility except for the main panel. Improper use of grounding may result in poor power quality, ground loops, and sharing noise/surges between neighbors.
Safety and Disclaimer: A certified, qualified professional/electrician must perform the electrical installations and maintenance. Qualified electricians are encouraged to review the National Electric Code (NEC) 2008 Ed, and other standards published by National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 70E-2004. EP does not hold responsible for any personal injury, property damage, or other damages of any kind, whether special, indirect, consequential, or compensatory, directly or indirectly resulting from the publication, use or reliance on the material contained in the following specifications. Whether express or implied, no warranties are made as to the accuracy or completeness of the information contained herein.
- The images and content from the following article is reused: Grounding & Bonding – Why it is done and How to install properly by Adams Electric Cooperative, Inc – A touchstone Energy Cooperative
- NEC Code 2008 Ed